The Four Factors That Influence Total Health

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In some communities, schools have been built on relatively undesirable land, such as landfill sites like Love Canal. Schools are often located on old industrial sites or near highways, resulting in exposure to auto emissions and air pollution . Many school buildings are old and poorly maintained, leading to exposures to air pollutants, radon, asbestos, pesticides, and lead . The U.S. General Accounting Office reported that 20 percent of primary and secondary schools had indoor air quality problems; more than half had environmental pollutant or building ventilation problems that could affect air quality (U.S. General Accounting Office, 1995). Radon above the EPA’s action level was found in 2.7 percent of schools surveyed during the 1990–1991 school year (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1992).

Duncan et al. have shown that less than 5 percent of the variation in youth delinquency can be explained with knowledge of the neighborhood of residence. These findings must be tempered by the way in which more proximate and more distal influences are interpreted statistically. As with our discussion of family influences, we organize our discussion of neighborhood and community influences using the distinction between demography and processes.

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Yet a striking result in broad-based studies of neighborhood effects on children is that there are many more differences in families and children within neighborhoods than between them. Chase-Lansdale et al. found that, at most, 2 percent of the variation in behavior problems among 5- and 6-year-olds can be explained by a collection of neighborhood demographic and economic conditions, such as poverty, male joblessness, and ethnic diversity.

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  • Swasthavritta dictates do’s and don’ts for a healthy daily regimen, and outlines diet and lifestyle modifications appropriate to different seasons.
  • Swasthavritta, and biobehavioral practices suggested by Yoga are very useful sources for lifestyle medicine.
  • Implemented in the 1960s, Medicaid coverage increased dramatically during the 1980s and early 1990s as a result of major policy changes in laws that sought to expand Medicaid eligibility .
  • For instance, Swasthavritta, a branch of Ayurveda is dedicated totally to healthy lifestyle.

Poverty in the United States is disproportionately concentrated among children (U the clap std.S. Census Bureau, 2002). The health and development of poor children are compromised relative to U.S. children living in higher income families (Brooks-Gunn and Duncan, 1997). Mortality from infectious diseases is 2.5 times more common and accidental deaths are twice as common among U.S. children in the poorest than among the richest 10 percent of the population.

Processes consist of the ways in which neighborhoods and communities operate to affect children’s well-being. Other reviews have found that children of depressed parents are at substantially greater risk to develop depression themselves . It is unclear to what extent these effects are related to religion or religiosity rather than parenting, community values, or attributes of youth who tend to be religious.

The built environment plays a major role in promoting or hampering physical activity in children. Schools, parks, and even sidewalks that are integrated into the design of a community can encourage physical activity. For example, physical activity among youth increases when schools offer such facilities as basketball courts and sports fields . These strategies all relate directly to features of the built environment. School-age children spend 35 to 50 hours per week in and around school buildings.

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